Reflecting on Adequate Practices: Ethical Integration of Religious/Spiritual Beliefs and Sexual and Gender Diverse Identities


  • Caleb Esteban, Ph.D. Ponce Health Sciences University
  • Luis X. Díaz Medero, B.A. Ponce Health Sciences University


conversion therapy, LGBT, spirituality/religion, psychotherapy, ethics


Reparative therapies, also known as conversion therapies, reorientation and recently biblical therapies, are interventions intended to the LGBTQ + people with the purpose of changing their sexual orientation and/or gender identity, to a heterosexual orientation or a cisgender identity. These interventions, in addition to being ineffective, carry risks of harm contrary to the claims of their practitioners. Puerto Rico has not been the exception of countries that have debated politically and socially on the subject. That is why this paper aims to contribute to the reflection on best ethical practices, examining the following objectives: introduce the political, socio-religious, and identity context attached to reparative therapies, expose the ethical implications of reparative therapies, and, recommend best practices regarding the integration of spirituality and religion and sexual and gender identities.

Author Biography

Caleb Esteban, Ph.D., Ponce Health Sciences University

Clinical Psychology Program, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Ponce Health Sciences University, PO BOX 7004, Ponce, Puerto Rico 00732-7004. email: