Beginnings of the Validation of a Scale to Explore the Spiritual and Religious Attitudes in Elderly People with a Puerto Rican Sample: A Pilot Study


  • José Rodríguez-Gómez, M.D. Carlos Albizu University and University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus
  • Dharma Rodríguez Pagán Seminario Teológico de Puerto Rico
  • Michael J. González, Ph.D. University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus
  • Terydalis Delgado Medina, M.A. Universidad del Turabo
  • Kathia Rodríguez Pagán University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus


elderly, religion/spirituality, psychometrics


This study develops and evaluates the psychometric properties (i.e., reliability) of the scale entitled “Scale to explore religious and spirituality attitudes in elderlies” (Escala para Explorar Actitudes Espirituales y Religiosas en Ancianos (EAERA)”; in addition, sociodemographic description of the sample is provided. Descriptive-exploratory methodology was used, with an expost facto design. The scale was tested with a sample of 124 subjects between 51 and 91 years old. After testing the scale, 37 items remain with an alpha Cronbach of .89, index that is considered adequate (Kline, 2000). Also, a socio-demographic profile and results using EAERA are presented demonstrating the importance of religion/spirituality for quality of life in the elderly. The EAERA is a valid instrument to explore religious and spirituality attitudes within the Puerto Rican elderly; in addition, the results show that at least in this sample, attitudes to spirituality/religion are impartial (Mean EAERA=61 points) this could mean that the sample may have an “adjustment state” in relation to their spirituality /religious beliefs.

Author Biography

Michael J. González, Ph.D., University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus

Catedrático, Programa de Nutrición Clínica, P.O Box 365067, Escuela Graduada de
Salud Publica, UPR Recinto de Ciencias Médicas, San Juan, PR 00936